2. Martin Luther
Martin Luther was a German monk who challenged the authority of the Roman Catholic Church in the sixteenth century. A key proponent of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther decried papal authority, particularly as it relates to the absolving of one’s guilt by making payments of money or other riches to the Catholic authorities. Luther wrote about this and many other grievances in his polemic The Ninety-Five Theses, published in 1517. Luther’s controversial stance unsettled the papacy of Pope Leo X, which eventually excommunicated Luther and declared him an outlaw. Over the following years, Luther would write numerous other works espousing a Protestant interpretation of the Holy Bible, which Luther translated from Latin into German. Luther also wrote many hymns and works of catechism.
Spreading this liberal viewpoint at a time when heretics were often burned at the stake certainly showed Martin Luther’s bravery and fortitude. But, as impressive as he may seem, late in his life, Luther espoused a decidedly anti-Semitic credo, referring to Jews in one of his writings as “the devil’s people.”